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Time Is Motion (TIM Theory)

(published mainly in Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics: www.ejtp.com)

On the first place we have to clear up the name: Time Is Motion means that time exists only as a movement of bodies and particles into cosmic space. Time does not move in space on its own.

Time is a physical quantity measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. There is no still observer which can observe all the movements from a still stand point. All the movements are relative. This is the main insight of the SR.

According to the Mach Planck definition in a Planck time a photon pass Planck distance. Time is a movement of a photon into Planck distance. The movement of photon into Planck distance is a "smallest" movement possible in the universe. Planck time t is a number that indicates the duration of the photon travelling in a Planck distance.

All in the universe is energy: cosmic space is energy, matter is energy, light is energy...... Time is a movement of energy, time can not run by itself into space. If it would be so, time would be an energy, but there is no formula in physics where time is energy.

1. In The Theory of Relativity time can be understood as a part of space only in sense that all movement exists in space. Motion and space can not be separated. Bodies and particles do not move in a space-time, all movement exists in space only. Space-time exist only as a math model, it does not exist in the universe itself.

The idea that time run by itself into cosmic space is from the times of Newton. At his time physics was a part of metaphysics. The idea is from metaphysics, it is not from physics. By Einstein the Newton idea that time runs independently into space and that movement of material bodies runs into time is half abandoned. In the Theory of Relativity duration of the movement (time) is described with t that is only a component of fourth dimension of space X4.

X4 = i x c x t

where

i (i square is -1) is an imaginary number

c is speed of light

t is a duration of light moving through the cosmic space from the object A to the object B

With clocks we measure duration of the movement of the light (duration of time). All four dimensions of cosmic space are spatial, cosmic space is not 3D + 1T, cosmic space is 4D.

Matter is three-dimensional, cosmic space is four-dimensional. When material object is moving in space, space is always also inside of it. Space does not finishes on the surface of material object, it extends also inside of it. One can imagine that as a two-dimensional object moving in a three-dimensional space. Two-dimensional object exists in three-dimensional space, but three-dimensional space exists also in the two-dimensional object.

The speed of the motion (time) depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain.

Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate".

2. Quanta of space (QS) which compose cosmic space have the following features: they change their electrical charge from positive to negative in a Planck time (5.39 ), vibrate at the “basic frequency” 0.19 , have a “basic energy” given by the relation Eqs = h*0.19 where h is Planck’s constant (6.626069 ), and thus Eqs = 1.26 .

QS composing cosmic space can not be created and can not be destroyed, they have no entropy.

Gravitational force acts between that build quanta of space that QS build up cosmic space. The "radius of action "of gravitational force is of a Planck size. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them.

Gravitational force is carried directly by the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it:

formula 1: D = m x G

where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation:

where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects.

Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space.

Fg = (m x D) / ( r x r )

where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star.

In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is:

Fg = (m x D) m10^-2

Gravitational acceleration a in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is:

a = (m x G) / (r x r)

m is a mass of planet or star,

G is gravitational constant

r is a distance from a centre

According to the formula 1: D = m x G

a = D ( r x r )

where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star

In a centre of a planet or star gravitational acceleration a has a maximum value:

a = D m10^-2

The value of a diminishes with the distance r on square from the centre of the planet or star where r can be shorter or longer than the radius r of the planet or star

3. Mass of a particle depends on the density of space inside of it are related with the following formula: D = m x G where m is the mass of the particle and G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass.

Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em )

Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G)

where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant.

Es = Em = (D x cc) / G

Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D.

First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”.

The formula E = m x cc shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy.

http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia...s_increase.htmlIn this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula:

E = (D x cc) / G

which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density of space into it.

The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing.

Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system.

Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal.

Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass.

4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems.

Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave.

In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon.

When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment.

5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space.

Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter.

Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end.

Schwarzschild Radius Rs is:

Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c)

G is gravitational constant

m is mass of the stellar object

According to the formula (1) D = G x m

D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole

Rs = 2D / (c x c)

Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space.

A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago.

A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there.

Diminishing of the speed of binary pulsar is caused by the transformation of matter back into the energy of cosmic space in the centre of one star of the binary pulsar. With transformation of matter into space the mass one stars is diminishing, and so also the speed of the binary pulsar is diminishing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.

Time decrease of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, and so time decrease of the orbital period.