15th November 2005 - 08:42 PM
Antoine Pinnock’s theory on the origination of the first simple microscopic single celled organisms on earth (The spark of life).
In summary the first single celled organisms may have been formed from a series of extremely complex reactions or combination processes, involving different substances. Most of the combination processes or the combining of the substances can only take place at extremely high pressures and along with high pressure comes high temperature.
How life was first formed on earth:
The best environments needed for the creation of life. These environments would have to provide the right ingredients, combine these ingredients at the right temperature and pressure, and would have to be able to sustain and nurture this newly formed life. The prefect environment would be the environment on a large mineral and gas (star dust) enriched meteorite, comet or asteroid which is able to with stand the extremely high temperatures and pressures upon entering the earth’s newly formed and dense atmosphere, and the environment in a large mineral and nutrient enriched body of water (an ocean). The meteorite, comet or asteroid entering the earth’s newly formed and dense atmosphere would provide some of the materials and the energy required to combine these materials and the dense atmosphere would provide the rest of these materials, while the large body of water would provide the nutrients and gentle environment needed sustain this newly formed life.
I know that the earth newly formed atmosphere would be very dense; this is based on the fact that currently on the earth there are trillions of organisms. Within these trillions of organisms are trillions of trillions of trillions of compounds, which are made up of trillions of trillions of trillions of trillions of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other atoms and ions. After the earth and its atmosphere were formed most of these trillions of trillions of trillions of trillions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other atoms and ions would be present in the newly formed atmosphere, which make the atmosphere extremely dense. So with the entry of a body, which can provide the energy and pressure, some of these atoms and ions would start to combine to form new and complex substance such as organic substance even simple microscopic organisms. After the meteorite or comet enters the dense atmosphere the combination processes or reactions to form life could take place minutes, seconds, microseconds or even nanoseconds apart. Time line between the reactions could even be so close that it apart that all of them took place at the same time.
The combining or breaking down and splitting up of atoms or elements can or will only take place at high temperatures and pressures in nature or naturally. These fusing and splitting processes of atoms cause nuclear reactions or fusions. The thermo nuclear reaction, which takes place in the cores of suns, is evidence of these processes. The combining or breaking down of ions, molecules and compounds can take place in the present of electrical, heat and other forms of energy.
Think of the creation of life as a chef cooking a piece of beef. The meteor, comet or meteorite would represent the beef. The different element, ions and molecules present on and within the meteorite and within the atmosphere (like nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, iron, carbon dioxide, water, etc.) would represent the different seasonings and spices that the chef would place on the piece of beef to make it more tasty and more palatable. And like how some of the seasonings and spices are not on the beef for nutritious reasons, so also some of the elements and molecules present in the meteorite won’t be involve in the complex chemical processes soon to be taking place on the meteorite (asteroid or comet) now entering the earth’s atmosphere. The earth’s rich and dense atmosphere would be like the pat and the stove needed to cook the piece of beef properly.
The chef has to pay lots attention to the beef when it’s being cooked to make sure it is properly cooked, to make sure it is not burnt, and to make sure the flame is not too high or too low and that the flame from the stove is not put out too early. So also must the electrical energy or electrical discharges in the atmosphere be just right, the atmosphere must also have the right elements and molecules to assist the meteorite, asteroid or comet in the complex combination processes or reactions. The distance from the upper most layer of the atmosphere to the surface the planet or body of large water must be just right, the body of water on the surface of the planet must be large enough to cool the meteorite to save the newly formed life it is carrying, the large body of water must also be rich with nutrients to sustain the newly formed organisms.
In order for the simple inorganic compounds and the elements present in the atmosphere and in the meteorite, comet or asteroid to form life they must be combined in a series of complex chemical processes and reactions at high temperature and pressure.
The building or creation of single celled organisms:
Upon entering the earth’s newly formed rich and dense atmosphere the chemicals on and within the meteorite, asteroid or comet, would begin to react with the chemicals in the atmosphere. These chemical reactions would begin to combine elements and molecules forming new substances, that is, the chemical reactions would turn simple inorganic compounds or substances into more complex inorganic compounds. As the meteorite moves closer and closer towards the earth’s surface, the temperature and pressure of the meteorite and its immediate surroundings would begin to rise and the amount of energy produced by the meteorite would also start to increase. These increases would now cause the complex inorganic compounds to be combined forming simple organic substances. For example the high temperature, energy and pressure, and the high speed of the meteorite would begin to combine simple inorganic substance like carbon atoms, hydrogen molecules, oxygen molecules, nitrogen molecules, chlorine molecules and sulphur atoms to produce complex inorganic compounds such as mineral and organic acids, bases, salts and other compounds. These complex inorganic substances would further be combined through even more complex chemical processes to produce simple organic substance such as amino acids, fatty acids, simple sugars, glycerol, salts and other organic acids.
As the temperature, pressure and energy continue to increase with great intensity the number of reactions would increase, and more complex chemical reactions between the organic and inorganic substances would begin to take place. These complex reactions would mark the beginning of the final combinations and chemical processes to start life.
The simple organic compounds like amino acids, simple sugars and others, along with the complex and simple inorganic compounds would continue to reacted and be combined to create complex organic substances such as complex sugars, complex proteins, and complex fats and oils.
In the early years of the earth, the earth was more compacted and compressed because the pressure built up in the core did not cause it to expand too far as yet. That is the gravitational field was the same size as now, it mass was the same but its volume and density were different from now. Its atmosphere also had a larger volume that is the distance from the upper most layer of the atmosphere to the surface of the planet was larger than now.
Now back to the chef cooking the beef. If the volume and density of the atmosphere was not just right and if there wasn’t a large body of water on the surface of the planet, then either the life creating chemical processes would not be completed and no life would be created or the newly formed organisms would not be able to endure or with stand the harsh conditions of the high temperatures and pressure produced by the meteorite (comet or asteroid) on entering the atmosphere and would immediately be incinerated, vaporized or destroyed. That would be like the chef leaving the beef on the stove too long and it begins to burn or it would be like the stove prematurely out before the beef is properly cooked.
The final combinations and reactions are the most critical, complex and important processes and have to be carried and maintained in just the right way and at just the right time. These final reactions and combination processes would involve all the reactants and products of the pervious processes and reactions.
The final reactions and combinations to form the simple single celled organisms would be a series of complex reactions between the complex organic molecules and compounds themselves and between the complex organic molecules and compounds and the other substances present on the meteorite and in the atmosphere. The complex molecules and compounds would be of proteins, sugars, fats and acids. These final processes and reactions would create the organelles of the organisms and at the some time the organisms themselves. They newly formed organisms would receive the energy they need to start their lives from the energy produced by the meteorite. If the organisms receive too much energy they would immediately be destroy by the intensity of energy. In order for the organisms to remain alive the meteorite must immediately loose its intense temperature and pressure and, become cool. The only way this would be done is if the fast moving and hot meteorite comes to rest or lands in a large nutrient enrich body of water (such as a ocean).
The newly formed simple organisms now in the large body would feed and sustain, and carry out most of the life processes through the processes of diffusion and osmosis.
Note that all the simple and complex reactions and combination processes to form the simple microscopic organisms on and within the comet, asteroid or meteorite in the earth’s very dense atmosphere would take place at the microscopic level. That is you would not see big trunks or pieces of organic materials present on meteorite. Instead you would have to use microscopes to look for the evidence that there is organic material present.
15th November 2005 - 09:05 PM
There's a book you should read called At Home in the Universe, by Stuart Kaufman. It uses a very simple topological analogy to show that random chemical interactions among a set of amino acids can produce an autocatalytic set of proteins; such an autocatalytic set of proteins, being capable of consumption, excretion, and reproduction, might fit the basic definition of "life." If enclosed in a lipid membrane, it might even fit the definition of a "cell," although far less complex than any cell that we are familiar with.
It might be best to gather an idea of how chaos mathematics works, in broad strokes, from James Gleick's Chaos as well. Kaufman also has a book called Complexity that covers much of the same material from a somewhat different viewpoint, and has some interesting additional material.
16th November 2005 - 12:30 AM
It would appear to me that the earth had all the conditions necessary to form life. All one needs is water, annomia, methane, acetate, etc.,The asteroids of life have several limiting points. The first is dehydration and the second is a firery entry into the earth. Animo acids are not that complex to make on the early earth. These are monomers that polymerize into proteins. Nuceic acids are also fairly simple to make and these also polymerize. It was only a matter of time.
10th January 2012 - 01:18 AM