The rest of the linksE to I
3C438 Animations http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/3c43...html#3c438_anim
Galaxy Cluster Takes It to the Extreme http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/3c438/
More Images of 3C438http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/3c43...tml#3c438_radio
A Nearby Elliptical Galaxy With An Active Galactic Nucleus.http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2001/0157blue/
Centaurus A Jet:
Energetic Jet Meets Resistance In Nearby Galaxyhttp://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2003/cenajet/
Chandra Scores A Double Bonus With A Distant Quasarhttp://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2002/1127/
Energetic Ring Marks Spot That Leads to Discovery of Neutron Star
Credit: NASA/CXC/U.Mass/F.Lu et al.
JPEG (86 k) Tiff (3.4 MB) PS (7 MB)
Zoom into SNR G54.1+0.3 (flash)
The Chandra image of the distant supernova remnant SNR G54.1+0.3 reveals a bright ring of high-energy particles with a central point-like source. This observation enabled scientists to use the giant Arecibo Radio Telescope to search for and locate the pulsar, or neutron star that powers the ring. The ring of particles and two jet-like structures appear to be due to the energetic flow of radiation and particles from the rapidly spinning neutron star rotating 7 times per second.
During the supernova event, the core of a massive star collapsed to form a neutron star that is highly magnetized and creates an enormous electric field as it rotates.
What creates the highly magnetized and electric fields is the properties of plasma and creating the Z-pinch drive.http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2003/vela_pulsar/
Vela Pulsar Jet:
Firehose-Like Jet Observed In Action
Credit: NASA/CXC/PSU/G.Pavlov et al.
JPEG (158 kb), Tiff (2.6 MB), PS (4.2 MB)
The Chandra images in this montage show the erratic variability of a jet of high energy particles that is associated with the Vela pulsar, a rotating neutron star. These images are part of a series of 13 images made over a period of two and a half years that has been used to make a time-lapse movie of the motion of the jet.http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/06_releas...ess_083006.html
"This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.
Illustration of a Magnetar
The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star.
Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Sayhttp://chandra.harvard.edu/press/04_releas...ess_010504.html
They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass.
Jets in Supermassive and Stellar-Mass Black Holeshttp://www.citebase.org/abstract?id=oai:ar...stro-ph/0302195
Relativistic outflows are a common phenomenon in accreting black holes. Despite the enormous differences in scale, stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries and collapsars, and super-massive black holes at the dynamic centre of galaxies are sources of jets with analogous physical properties. Synergism between the research on microquasars, gamma-ray bursts, and Active Galactic Nuclei should help to gain insight into the physics of relativistic jets seen everywhere in the Universe.
One of the most important properties of any electrical plasma is its ability to "self-organize" - that is, to electrically isolate one section of itself from another. The isolating wall is called a double layer (DL). When a plasma is studied in the lab, it is usually contained in a closed cylindrical glass tube. Electrodes are inserted into the ends of the tube - one electrode (called the anode) is maintained at a higher voltage than the electrode at the other end (the cathode). If such a voltage difference is applied, then ionization will be initiated and current will start to flow through the plasma. Positive ions (atoms with one or more electrons stripped off) will migrate away from the anode, and negative ions (atoms carrying one or more extra electrons) will move toward the anode. The mathematical sum of these two oppositely directed flows constitutes the total current in the plasma.
JETS IN SUPERMASSIVE AND STELLAR-MASS BLACK
The self-constricting magnetic field lines and current paths in a Birkeland current (or magnetic rope). The current is strongest at the axis and becomes weaker further away. Currents flow parallel to the magnetic field, and derives partly from an external axial field and partly from the toroidal field produced by the current itself.
Image credit: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-345/ch15.htm#250
The Bakerian Lecture, 1982: Galaxies and Their Nucleihttp://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4630...%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V
Read the abstract.
Lockheed Martin Scientists Determine Magnetic Reconnection Locations At Earth's Magnetopausehttp://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Lockheed...opause_999.html
Magnetic cocoons power energetic cosmic rayshttp://space.newscientist.com/article/dn12818
NASA: Major Step Toward Knowing Origin of Cosmic Rayshttp://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/t...rated_rays.html
NASA Scientists Determine the Nature of Black Hole Jetshttp://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/t...ft_blazars.html
Black hole particle jets are commonly seen in quasars and other celestial objects, shooting off at nearly light speed. According to the Swift team, these jets appear to be made of protons and electrons, solving a mystery as old as the discovery of jets themselves in the 1970s. The jets observed by Swift contain about the mass of Jupiter if it were pulverized and blasted out into intergalactic space.
Black hole particle jets typically escape the confines of their host galaxies and flow for hundreds of thousands of light years. They are a primary means of redistributing matter and energy in the universe. They are a key to understanding galaxy formation and are tied to numerous cosmic mysteries, such as the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.
"Black hole jets are one of the great paradoxes in astronomy," said Rita Sambruna of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "How is it that black holes, so efficient at pulling matter in, can also accelerate matter away at near light speed? We still don't know how these jets form, but at least we now have a solid idea about what they're made of."
Read the abstract
Plasma: The other 99.9%http://thunderbolts.info/tpod/2005/arch05/051031plasma.htm
Relativistic jets and beams in radio galaxies
RADIO-ASTRONOMICAL observations have recently clarified the link between the components of extended double sources and the primary power supply in the central galactic nucleus. The new data vindicate the general idea1−4 that power is continuously supplied by beams; it seems, furthermore, that the beams are collimated in a scale little larger than the central power supply (
1 pc), and that the orientation remains fairly steady over the whole lifetime. The giant double source 3C236, 2
107 light yr in total extent5,6, has a compact central component aligned with the overall axis7; a similar phenomenon is observed in Cygnus A (ref. 8). In NGC6251, a straight jet 200 kpc long9 emanates from a 'blowtorch'
0.1 pc wide in the galactic nucleus10. There is a radio jet11 in 3C147 reminiscent of the well-known features in M87 and 3C273; and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) reveals linear structure in several compact extragalactic sources12. It is argued here that collimation occurs close to a central collapsed object, and that the beams are orientated along its spin axis. Strong-field gravitational effects then stabilise the beams against jitter even if the gas fuelling the source has an inconstant flow pattern. Radio galaxies where the beam axis seems to have gradually drifted or swung, rather than pointing in a constant direction, may belong to a special class that have experienced collisions and recurrent nuclear activity.
Seeing Circuits (2)http://thunderbolts.info/tpod/2005/arch05/...ng-circuits.htm
An electrical current in plasma will generate its own magnetic field and "self constrict" the current channel. This is called the Bennett pinch effect. It produces filaments or threads of current that remain coherent over large distances. Multiple filaments tend to spiral around each other, forming helical "power cables" that can transmit electric power over large distances.
Two "Black Holes?"http://thunderbolts.info/tpod/2006/arch06/...oblackholes.htm
I could go on, but as you read the common explanation for jets is via in falling matter creating a vortex. I do not agree with this.
The forming of jets on opposite sides is in question.
The amount of energy and matter released compared to in falling matter is in question.
The formation and form of varies structures of galaxies is directly related to the size and activity of the so called Black hole, which in reality is just an ultra dense plasma degenerate matter.