8th September 2008 - 05:15 AM
Galaxy Clusters Evolved By Dispersion, Not By Conglomeration I. From "Cosmic heavyweight"http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id...mic_heavyweight
"Astronomers discover the heftiest, most distant galaxy cluster, suggesting evidence for dark energy's existence."
"Dark energy is an unexplained force that accelerates the expansion of the universe. Without this force, Lamer says, nearby clusters should be much more massive than those that are billions of light-years away. Distant clusters, he says, should be less massive because they had less time to conglomerate."II. Galaxy Clusters Evolved By Dispersion, Not By AccretionA.
Compact Galaxies In Early Universe Pack A Big Punchhttp://www.physorg.com/news128692030.html
Again, repeating an old posting of mine:
"Singularity, max density, and D-Infinity, max expansion/ cosmic energy dilution, are the two cosmic stable states. Their in-between is a metastable state, which is an everyday commonsense observation. Likewise is the observation that the denser the compacting goal of material the more energy is required, and vice versa the more thorough the disintegration of material the higher the amount of energy released. It seems that E=mC^2 is a specific case of the cosmic (and universal) process
E=Total[m(1 + D)] where D is the Distance from Big Bang point and the sum is of all spatial values of D from D=0 to D=selected value.
BTW, following Newton (1) gravity is decreased when mass is decreased and (2) acceleration of a body is given by dividing the force acting upon it by its mass. By plain common sense, best scientific approach, the combination of those two 'laws' may explain the accelerating cosmic expansion of galaxy clusters, based on the above E/ m/ D suggested relationship. "
Thus the young "condensed galaxies" are, in fact, what later evolved into galactic clusters. B.
Galaxy Clusters Evolved By Dispersion, Not By Builduphttp://www.physforum.com/index.php?showtop...10entry337638
Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time to the early hot dense "Big Bang" phase, using general relativity, yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past.
At age 10^-35 seconds the Universe begins with a cataclysm that generates space and time, as well as all the matter and energy the Universe will ever hold.
2. How have galaxy clusters evolved http://herschel.jpl.nasa.gov/galaxies.shtml
"Among the stranger objects that appear to have populated the early universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs)."
"How did the Universe evolve after the Big Bang?" and "How did galaxies form?" These are big questions, and they are not easy to answer: after all, these things occurred billions of years ago. Galaxy clusters provide one window into the very early Universe. They are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, and the properties of clusters can be used to place strong limits on cosmological theories of structure formation and evolution.
The process of galaxy formation largely is a mystery. Current theory is that large galaxies formed over time from the interaction and merging of smaller galaxies. This process began more than 12 billion years ago, shortly after the Big Bang. Scientists have observed galaxies merging over a large range of distances and time, providing hard evidence to reinforce the theory. However, using current technology, it is difficult to detect this process at the most extreme distances, when galaxy formation was in its infancy.
Scientists believe galaxy clusters form in a similar manner. As galaxies congregate and interact in large, dense regions of space, the cluster grows with time. Witnessing this process first-hand helps scientists confirm their theory and deepen their understanding of the universe. Galaxy clusters can be detected at extreme distances with current technology because they are bright, but they are difficult to find.C.
I suggest: Galaxy Clusters Evolved By Dispersion Of "Condensed Packs",
not by accretion of smaller matter. The dispersion/breakdown of the "condensed packs"
followed the relationship E=Total[m(1 + D)] , i.e. it was accompanied by an overall decrease of mass. Accretion possibly and probably took place, too, in this and in other cosmic evolutions within and between clusters, but the primal GC evolved as D, dispersion, increased accompanied by m decreased.