s0cratus
=.
1.
http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/C...essProblem.html
2.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatness_problem
3.
http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/F/Flatness+Problem
4.
. . . etc.
=…
There are many different spaces: 2 dimension space, 3D space,
4D, 5D . . . .. .10D, 11D . . . . maybe more.
There are also ‘ closed’ and ‘open’ spaces.
There are many topological spaces too.
Question:
Which space has the Universe as a whole?
It is fact: the Universe as a whole has exactly the
required density of matter to be flat.
The average density of matter in the universe (even
incorporating a dark mass and dark energy ) is equal to
or less than critical density and therefore the universe
as a whole is a flat infinite continuum.
==..
But the physicists refuse to admit this fact .
Why ?
Because they don’t know that to do with ‘ a flat infinite
continuum’. And they ‘ burned ‘ the real infinite flat
cosmological continuum ( using different abstract models )
to rid it of its infinite flatness.
And from Einstein’s time they discus about cosmological
constant that will close the flat- open Universe
into a close- sphere.
==..
The Universe as a whole is an Infinite Flat Universe.
Only in some rare places the Infinite Flatness is breaked.
==..
they say: ‘ If there’s nothing wrong with me then,
maybe there’s something wrong with the Universe. ‘
=..
' But I don't want to go among mad people,' said Alice.
'Oh, you can't help that,' said the cat. 'We're all mad here.'
/ Lewis Carroll.
==..
s0cratus
How is possible to understand the Flatness ?
How is possible to understand the Infinite Flat Universe ?
What is possible to say about a cold Kelvin space T=0K ?
==.
Flatness is a Vacuum.
Vacuum is an Empty space between billions and billions Galaxies.
Now (!) the physicists think (!) that the Universe as whole has
temperature: T= 2,7K . The parameter T=2,7K is not constant.
It is temporal and goes down. In the future it will come to T= 0K.
#
In my opinion this cold Kelvin space T=0K has old physical -
classical model so-called ‘ model of an Ideal Gas’.
Now we think that model of ‘ Ideal Gas is an abstraction’,
but this abstraction suit very well to another ‘ abstraction ‘,
to ‘a cold zero Kelvin space.’
These two models have negative temperature, and
in these two models there are ‘abstract ideal – virtual particles’.
And to have real model is needed something to change in these
abstraction models .. . .. and this change can be only quantum.
#
Now, let us put an elemenrary particles in the cold Kelvin space:
T = 2,7K ---> 0K. Which geometrical form they can have ?
The answer is: ‘ They must be flat particles.’
Why?
Because according to Charle’s law and the consequence of the
third law of thermodynamics as the thermodynamic temperature
of a system approaches absolute zero the volume of particles
approaches zero too. It means the particles must have flat forms.
They must have geometrical form of a circle: pi= c /d =3,14 . . . .
#
All formulas, equations and laws of ‘ an Ideal Gas’
is possible to use to the vacuum T=0K.
===…
All the best.
===.
s0cratus
P.S.
The universe is flat on the large scale, as per the scientific
evidence provided by WMAP.
Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy
prior to the WMAP results.
WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision.
We now know that the universe is flat with only a 0.5% margin of error.

http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_shape.html.
==..
Book ‘ Parallel Worlds’ by Michio Kaku.
#
‘ According to the picture emerging from the WMAP satellite,
a mysterious antigravity force is accelerating the expansion
of the universe. If it continued for billions or trillions of years,
the universe will inevitably reach a big freeze . . . .’
/ page 288 /
In 1854, . . . . Helmholtz realized that the laws of
thermodynamics could be applied to the universe as a whole,
meaning that everything around us, including the stars and
galaxies, would eventually have to run down.’
/ page 289 /
==..
There isn’t thermodynamics without the ‘ Ideal gas’.
There isn’t thermodynamics of cosmos without the ‘ Ideal gas’.
==.
AlexG
I pretty much ignore anything Kaku says. He's way to speculative and he presents that speculation as mainstream thinking. He's just too 'gee whiz', both in his books and his real profession, TV personality.
Fact number one:
According to WMAP the universe as whole is flat.
Fact number two:
According to the critical density
(even incorporating a dark mass and dark energy )
the universe as whole is flat.

All another assumptions are speculations .
===..
Robittybob1
QUOTE (sadovnik+Aug 27 2012, 05:21 AM)
Fact number one:
According to WMAP the universe as whole is flat.
Fact number two:
According to the critical density
(even incorporating a dark mass and dark energy )
the universe as whole is flat.

All another assumptions are speculations .
===..

But what does "flat " mean? It does not mean planar does it? Like it can be still filling 3D space and still be flat.
Tell me what you think flat means please?
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