29th July 2012 - 04:14 PM
One of the most important earth friendly molecules is water. Luckily, water is the third most abundant molecule in the universe, behind hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Water is the universal solvent able to form the most interactions with the rest of the elements and molecules in the universe.
Water has many unique properties. In fact, water has more anomalies than any other chemical, displaying 68 known anomalies. Water is not only very common in the universe and is the universal solvent, but it also the universal wild card. Earth has plenty of wild card, useful even to life. Water anomalies
For example, one anomaly is water expands when it freezes and contracts when it melts. This is why ice in your drink floats on the liquid water. Most other materials contract when they freeze, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Picture the very common and plentiful ice collecting in space due to gravity. This can occur under a wide range of conditions, since ice forms at 0C., which is warm compared to space. When other molecules like hydrogen are gases water is a solid which is easier for gravity since it can't diffuse.
As we apply gravitational pressure to the collecting ball of ice, the gravitational work melts the ice in the center. The result is a rapid 10% reduction in volume as we form liquid. This water anomaly allows a rapid collapse due to gravity.
At the center, further gravitional work and heat cause the liquid water to to heat up into a gas , which expands quickly outward, while the upper ice to water phase change is collapsing downward. The very outside is still collecting solid ice, like a cold containment vessel with extreme pressures inside.
Theoretically, water has all the hydrogen it needs for fusion (H2O). The water is far easier to influence with gravity than hydrogen or carbon monoxide due to its solid phase at a wider range of temperatures. It also has the contraction anomaly to allow the collapse hammer.
What is also interesting, research that generate extreme pressure and temperature water (hydrogen/oxygen explosion) show that water properties keep on changing as pressure and temperature increase. At the temperature and pressures assumed in the earth's core, for example, water becomes a metallic solid with electrical conduction properties. This this metallic state of water is used to theorize the core of gas giant planets. But it also suggests the possibility of metallic water within the earth's iron core due to the parallel conditions. Metallic water
More interestingly, water generated at temperatures and pressures similar to what is assumed in the mantle will exist as a super-ionic solid. The mantle is also solid. This water would be as hard as iron and glows yellow. While water generated to parallel the conditions found in the outer core, found that water becomes an ionic fluid just like the outer core. Superionic solid water
This all suggest that the earth friendly planets formed from water and that water goes to the core. Asteroids would added other materials to the many pressure and temperature phases of the universal solvent. While the water genesis of planets makes them ripe for life.
Here is one more cool water observation:
As if that wasn’t weird enough, researchers from the University of Technology in Austria recently discovered that when exposed to a high-voltage electric field, water in two beakers will climbs out and cross empty space to join, forming a water bridge that appears to defy gravity. More unique water properties