You are starting to encroach upon my terrain there. Watch out you might become an ardent supporter of my work.
BTW ever wonder what happens to all of those photons that come out of the stars? They can't travel forever, infinite is not probable, so what happens to it, when it slows down, or stops.
The photon is a misinterpretation by Max Planck of the measurings of the heat radiation that was measured as wavelengths but calculated as frequencies (to measure temperature's/energy's ratio to time).
Measurings from experiments (made by F. Paschen at the Technische Hochschule in Hannover, and, on the other hand, by O. Lummer and E. Pringsheim at the State Institution in Charlottenburg) showed that there was a constant fractional difference between the wave-units that increased fractionally proportional with the wavelengths.
Neither Max Planck nor anybody until now has understood this simple phenomenon that my empirical experiment and derivation explain.
See M. Planck's Nobel lecture at: http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/19...ck-lecture.html
Where Planck writes:
<<Either the quantum of action was a fictional quantity, then the whole deduction of the radiation law was in the main illusory and represented nothing more than an empty non-significant play on formulae, or the derivation of the radiation law was based on a sound physical conception. In this case the quantum of action must play a fundamental role in physics, and here was something entirely new, never before heard of, which seemed called upon to basically revise all our physical thinking, built as this was, since the establishment of the infinitesimal calculus by Leibniz and Newton, upon the acceptance of the continuity of all causative connections.>>
The right explanation is that the heat radiation's waves increases in wavelength depending on the entropy-effect that Rudolf Clausius defined and tried to find its mechanism's explanation. That is: Entropy is the termodynamical effect that forces the electrodynamical energy forwards towards equilibrium. The stars radiation reach equilibrium at the CBR temperature where the radiation's dissipation reach its "heat death". This thermodynamical wave-elongation is apparently interpreted as if the galaxies are running away from us proportionally faster with the distance. But it isn’t the universe that is expanding – it is the radiation’s wavelengths that is expanding depending on the entropy-effect that Clausius defined but never found.
Compare with Galilei’s sloping plane where higher dynamical energy forces the ball to accelerate by increased entropy to its lowest energy level at equilibrium.
Even Planck and other scientists searched the mechanism behind the radiation's dissipation. Clausius never accepted Boltzmann's statistical interpretation.
See the following citation on this web-page:http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~histor...s/Clausius.html
<<Clausius' great legacy to physics is undoubtedly his idea of the irreversible increase in entropy, and yet we find no indication of interest in Josiah Gibbs' work on chemical equilibrium or Boltzmann's views on thermodynamics and probability, both of which were utterly dependent on his idea. It is strange that he himself showed no inclination to seek a molecular understanding of irreversible entropy or to find further applications of the idea; it is stranger yet, and even tragic, that he expressed no concern for the work of his contemporaries who were accomplishing those very tasks. >>
Dark matter is an interpretation that was a needed help hypothesis to explains the Doppler-measurings of the arms of rotating spiral galaxies that was first observed as an unintelligible anomaly and first calculated by Fritz Zwicky and rediscovered by Vera Rubin.
They found it strange that all the stars' have the same velocity. The velocity-distribution was the same. This was misinterpreted that those galaxies rotated as stiff plates with the same angular velocity over the whole galaxy’s arms. The thought that the consequences must be that the rotation's centrifugal forces should increase with the distance away from the center of the galaxy's decreasing gravity and throw away the star's out in the space.
But, the right explanation is that the orbital velocity is the same for all the stars in the galaxies’ arms. This implies that a star in the galaxy rotates two revolutions when another star in the same galaxy’s arm at the double distance rotates one revolution and both have the same velocity. This implies that the angular velocity decreases proportionally to the decreasing gravitation.
CONSEQUENTLY – NO DARK MATTER IS NEEDED – neither to explain the galaxies’ rotation-gravitation, nor the apparent expansion of the universe!!!
Ingvar Astrand, Swedenhttp://www.theuniphysics.info
(I will soon update my web-pages)