Dear Expert Members, Placing here my new explanation for the cosmological redshift for your comments:
Cumulative-phase-alteration of galactic-light passing through cosmic-microwave-background adding to measured red-shifts
Hasmukh K. Tank
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Date: 15th April, 2012
Abstract: This paper reports a new mechanism for the red-shift in the extra-galactic-light; as well as a new kind of blue-shift reported here, and their observational evidences. These spectral-shifts result due to cumulative phase-alteration of extra-galactic-light because of vector-addition of: (i) electric-field of extra-galactic-light and (ii) that of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB). Since the center-frequency of CMB is much lower than extra-galactic-light, the cumulative-phase-alteration results in red-shift, observed as an additional contributor to the measured ‘cosmological red-shift’; and since the center-frequency of CMB is higher than the radio-frequency-signals used to measure velocity of Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses space-probes, the cumulative-phase-alteration resulted in blue-shift, leading to the interpretation of deceleration of these space-probes, comparable in magnitude with the ‘deceleration-of-cosmic-photons’.
Key-words: Cosmological red-shift, Pioneer anomaly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Cumulative Phase-Alteration
The ‘cosmological red-shift’ is currently understood in terms of ‘metric-expansion-of-space’. Since this interpretation leads to: (i) ‘big-bang’, that is: coming out of such a huge universe from an infinitesimally small point, (ii) non-confermation of ‘the law of conservation of energy’, and (iii) total loss of energy of the ‘cosmologically red-shifted photons, many scientists are searching for alternative-interpretations of ‘the cosmological red-shift’. A list from Wikipedia is included here as an appendix-1. Large percentage of astrophysicists personally do not agree with the ‘standard model of cosmology’, but they have no courage to swim against the current, fearing adverse consequences to their carrier.
It is also a reason, that the alternatives proposed so far were rather speculative; for example, speculating about possible presence of iron-particles in the inter-galactic-space, or presence of atoms of gas, or electrons, or virtual-particles…etc. Whereas a mechanism reported here is based on experimentally established facts, namely the presence of ‘cosmic-microwave-background’ (CMB), and vector-addition of electric-fields. Moreover this mechanism is able to predict both kids of spectral-shifts, and their observational-evidences. Also, there is no loss of energy; energy lost by cosmic-photons get transferred to CMB.
It is not intended here to conclude that the whole of the measured ‘cosmological red-shift’ is due to this ‘cumulative-phase-alteration-mechanism’; some 5% of the red-shift may be really due to ‘metric-expansion-of-space’, reducing requirement of total-mass-of-the-universe to the observable baryonic matter, making it sufficient for the required ‘closer-density’.
Cumulative Phase-Alteration of the Extra-Galactic-Light passing through Cosmic-Microwave-Background (CMB)
Since I am not able to include a figure in this draft, please imagine a horizontal arrow of three centimeter length representing instantaneous magnitude and direction of electric-field of the ‘extra-galactic-light’. Then add a small arrow of just five mm length at an angle minus thirty degrees, representing instantaneous magnitude and direction of the ‘cosmic-microwave-background’. You can see that the resultant vector has increased in magnitude, but lagged behind by a small angle theta. As the wave of extra-galactic-light travels in space, a new arrow representing CMB keeps on getting added to the previous resultant-vector. This kind of phase and amplitude-alterations continue for billions of years in the case of ‘extra-galactic-light’; producing a cumulative-effect. Since the speed of rotation of the vector representing CMB is much slower than that of light, the CMB-vector pulls-back the Light-vector resulting in reduction of cyclic-rotations. This process can be mathematically expressed as follows:
Electric field of pure light-wave can be expressed as:
Ψ (X,t) = A[cos ω t + i sin ω t] ………….(1)
When electric-fields of CMB get added, the resultant-sum can be expressed as:
Ψ (X,t) = A[N(t)cos ω t + i ^N(t)sin ω t]….(2)
Where: N(t) represents instantaneous magnitude of alteration caused by CMB, and ^N(t) represents its Hilbert-transform. When all the spectral-components of N(t) are phase-shifted by +90 degrees, we get its Hilbert-transform ^N(t).
As a communications-engineer we use band-pass-filter to remove out-of-band noise. This author has also developed a noise-cancelling-technique, to reduce the effect of even in-band-noise by up-to 10 dB. But in the extra-galactic-space there are no band-pass-filters, so the phase-alterations caused by CMB keep on getting accumulated. After billions of years, when this light reaches our planet earth there is a cumulative-phase-alteration in the extra-galactic-light, observed as a part of ‘the cosmological red-shift’. Since the center-frequency of CMB is much lower than extra-galactic-light, the cumulative-phase-alteration results in red-shift; and since the center-frequency of CMB is higher than the radio-frequency-signals (2110 MHz for the uplink from Earth and 2292 MHz for the downlink to Earth) used to measure velocity of Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses space-probes, the cumulative-phase-alteration resulted in blue-shift, leading to the interpretation of deceleration of these space-probes. Although, one of the shifts is red-shift, and the other is blue-shift, their magnitudes, in terms of decelerations, are strikingly the same; as described in detail in the next paragraph:
We can express the cosmological red-shift zc in terms of de-acceleration experienced by the photon, as follows (Tank, 2010, 2011):
For zc smaller than one:
zc = (f0 - f) / f = H0 D / c
i.e. h (f0 - f) = (h f / c^2) (H0 c) D ……..(3)
That is, the loss in energy of the photon is equal to its mass (hf / c^2) times the acceleration a = H0 c , times the distance D travelled by it. Where: H0 is Hubble-parameter. And the value of constant acceleration a is: a = H0 c , a = 6.87 x 10-10 meter/sec^2 .
And now, we will see that the accelerations experienced by the Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses space-probes do match strikingly with the expression-3:
Carefully observed values of de-accelerations: (Anderson J. D. et. al. 1998)
For Pioneer-10, a = (8.09 0.2) x 10-10 m/s2 = H0 c +/- local-effect....(4)
[Moderator: Suspended 10 days for posting tooth-fairy pseudoscience. This value is neither constant nor real. It's a difference between physical behavior and a simple model partially accounting for conventional physical effects. With a better model accounting for conventional physical effects, all hints of new phenomena disappear. http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.2507 Therefore, this is tooth-fairy pseudo-science where it is not complete nonsense. http://www.physforum.com/index.php?showtop...ndpost&p=516210 http://www.skepdic.com/toothfairyscience.html ]
For Pioneer-11, a = (8.56 0.15) x 10-10 m/s2 = H0 c +/- local-effect.....(5)
For Ulysses, a = (12 3) x 10-10 m/s2 = H0 c +/- local-effect.......(6)
For Galileo, a = (8.0 3) x 10-10 m/s2 = H0 c +/- local-effect,.....(7) and:
As we already derived earlier, for the ‘cosmologically-red-shifted-photon’,
a = 6.87 x 10-10 m/s2 = H0 c............(8)
This value of acceleration is also the ‘critical acceleration’ of modified Newtonian dynamics MOND.....................................(9);
and the rate of ‘accelerated-expansion’ of the universe...............(10)
Perfect matching of values of decelerations of all the four space-probes is itself an interesting observation; and its matching with the deceleration of cosmologically-red-shifting-photons can not be ignored by a scientific mind as a coincidence. There is one more interesting thing about the value of this deceleration as first noticed by Milgrom, that: with this value of deceleration, an object moving with the speed of light would come to rest exactly after the time T0 which is the age of the universe.
Our preliminary consideration of a new mechanism, namely: ‘Cumulative Phase-Alteration of the Extra-Galactic-Light passing through Cosmic-Microwave-Background (CMB)’ leads to a explanation for: not only the ‘cosmological red-shift’, but also the Pioneer-anomaly. Quantitative analysis may leave 5% of the measured value of the ‘cosmological red-shift’ for the standard explanation in terms of ‘matrix-expansion-of-space’, reducing the requirement of total-mass of the universe to the already-observable baryonic matter.
Anderson, J.D., Laing, P.A., Lau, E.L., Liu, A.S., Nieto M. M., and Turyshev, S.G.; “Indication, from Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration” Phys. Rev. Letters. 81 (1998) 2858-2861 [(Comment by Katz J.I.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1892 (1999); Reply: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1893 (1999)].
Tank H. K. “A new law emerging from the recurrences of the `critical-acceleration' of MOND, suggesting a clue to unification of fundamental forces”, Astrophysics and Space Science, 2010, 330, 203–205
Tank H. K. “Some clues to understand MOND and the accelerated expansion of the universe” Astrophysics and space Science, 2011, 336, Issue 2, pp.341-343.