1st December 2005 - 08:22 PM
The creation of a black hole:
Any large star or sun with a stable core, any large star or sun which can or has the ability to with stand the bombardment and explosive power of millions of meteors and asteroids or the explosive force of several billion mega tone nuclear explosives has the ability to become a Black hole/ Growing star/ Giant star/ Mega star/ The large or massive bodies which were involved in the Big bang.
Say our sun was a bit larger and had a more stable core and it got hit by a or some large meteors, comets or asteroids or it got hit by large fragments from a planet or another sun which had exploded, which produces a series of explosion beneath surface of the sun. Breaking the chromosphere and some portions of the upper most parts of the photosphere in to millions of large segments or fragments. The average kinetic energy or temperature of the segments would be raised from thousands of degrees Celsius to hundreds thousands of degrees Celsius. The explosions within the or unstable state of the chromosphere and photosphere could shoot the millions of extremely hot segments at high velocities away from the sun, along with different kinds of deadly radiation in every direction.
These segments or high velocity fragments from the sun would amount to about 15 - 20% of the sun’s mass. The rest of the 80 – 85% of the sun would still remain intact and partially stable, and would still continue to produce more radiation, light and heat energy by nuclear fusion.
The segments or fragments would be moving at such high speed that they could easily escape the gravitational pull of the sun. If there isn’t any gravitational force between some of the fragments them selves and they were moving in straight lines, the force could be enough to carry them out of the solar system at high velocity.
The segments would at first be moving in a straight line away from the sun carrying hot dust, gases, solid and molten star dust (some of the metallic elements in the periodic table). After the segments have just left the vicinity of the sun they would start to attract each other because of the strong gravitational force between them. Some segments would continue at high velocity, while some would start to slow down and some would begin to speed up. Some small and medium size segments would begin to change direction speed due to their attraction to each other and to the larger ones. The change in direction and speed of some of the fragment would begin to cause collisions between the fragments within the outward moving wave of fragments. Some segments might escape from taking part in any of the collisions.
The collision between the fragments would at first create an outward moving cluster or cloud around the sun. The cluster would consist of the some material as the segments. The cluster would at first be moving outwards at a reasonably slow speed compared to the segments that had escaped the collisions, which formed the cluster.
Many of the escaped fragments will now be in direct collision curse with many other stars and planets. The direct collision of a segment with a planet or unstable sun or even a stable sun would be catastrophic, with unimaginable explosive power and could have a catastrophic effect on the galaxy and, or even the entire universe.
Say one of these segment were to collide with the earth it would have the explosive power of several billion nuclear bombs. The massive explosion would not only destroy every thing on the surface of the planet, but it would destroy the entire planet. The massive explosion caused by the segment along with the unstable core of the planet, would break the earth into thousands of trillions of pieces of hot and molten rocks and metals, and fast moving clusters of hot gases and dusts. The explosion would cause the fragments from the earth to scatter in ever direction away from the earth at extremely high velocities.
Some of the fragments would immediately be heading directly towards the sun and also towards the large surrounding the sun. About 40 – 45% of the fragments after the explosion would be trapped in the sun strong gravitational field. The high velocity fragments from the planet trapped in the sun’s gravitational field will begin to move towards the sun but would be slowed down and broken down into smaller pieces by the cluster surrounding the sun. The fragments, which were broken down, will now become a part of now inward moving cluster surrounding the sun. The strong gravitational field of the sun would begin to pull particles from the cluster towards it. By acquiring this mass the sun would start to grow. The larger or the more mass the sun has the greater and the stronger its gravitational field becomes.
The high velocity segments from the sun and the other 55 – 60% of the high velocity fragments from the earth would continue to move towards other stars and other bodies in the galaxy, causing a series of massive cosmic collisions and explosions. These collisions and explosions or cosmic chain reactions would mark the beginning of the destruction of the galaxy.
With the destruction of each planet and unstable star by the high velocity segments and fragments, the exploding bodies would distribute about 35 – 35% of their mass to the cluster surrounding the now growing sun thus enabling it to get bigger and as it grows its gravitational field also grows and becomes stronger. The grow sun would remain stable as it grows because the now slowly inward moving cluster surrounding it would slow down and break down all the large high speed fragments moving towards it, which are coming from planets and suns and other heavenly bodies, that had exploded throughout the galaxy.
The small particles of hot dust, rocks and gases close to the sun within the cluster would be pulled into the sun’s atmosphere by its strong gravitational field. The immense heat and radiation being produced by the sun would break down the already small particles in to their smallest form (atoms and molecules). The atoms and molecules would then be distributed on sun’s surface, causing its mass to become large, its volume and density to increase and its electro magnetic and gravitational field to become stronger and larger. This is when the growing sun is said to be a black hole and its growing gravitational field would now be capable of attracting or pulling objects (such as planets and other heavenly bodies) in other solar systems towards it.
Clusters like the one around the growing sun would not be formed around the billions of exploding unstable suns and planets. This is because the collisions, which form the cluster, depend on the size of the fragments and how strong the gravitational forces between these same fragments are. If the collisions to form the clusters do not begin to take place immediately after the explosion of the body, then the collision would not take place at any other time.
So, compared to the fragments from a stable star the fragments from an exploding unstable star or planet are relatively small but they move through space at a much higher speed, and the gravitational forces between them are very weak. The fragments from the stable sun are very large and the forces of attraction between them are very strong. They tend to attract each other more readily causing collisions, which form clusters. The explosive power of the fragments from the stable sun does not depend on their speed but on the large mass (size) and on the nuclear reactions taking place on and within them.
The fragments from the unstable suns and planets are very small and the gravitational force of attraction between them is very weak. If they do not begin to attract each other when they are close together, they are in the closest proximity to each other immediately after the explosion, then they would continue to move further and further apart with the gravitational attraction between them getting weaker and weaker. The explosive power of these fragments does not depend on their size or temperature but on the extremely high velocity at which they travel.
During the formation of the black hole or during the gathering of matter for the growing star, the star could become unstable and explode, scattering the matter it had gather back out at high velocity and temperature in every direction. This scattered matter would help to reform the partially destroyed galaxy.
If the star remains stable during the formation of the black hole and remains stable when it has stop growing or have collected all the matter near it in the galaxy, there are three possible out comes.
One of the out come is during the formation of this giant star (black hole), more than one was formed in a similar manner in other parts of the galaxy the mega stars, which are now extremely dense and with their gravitational fields extending for several thousand light years. Still continues to produce lots and lots of light, heat, and other forms of energy, starts to attract each other and the speed of the mega bodies starts to increase as they move closer and closer towards each other. With each mega star having the explosive power of several hundred trillion nuclear bombs. The massive bodies then begin to move faster and faster and closer and closer towards each other, increasing their temperature and explosive power. They then start to become unstable as their temperature increases to billions of degrees Celsius. They then collide at extremely speeds, creating a massive explosion, the second “Big Bang”, recreating this galaxy.
The second out come could be only one mega star (black hole) is created, which remain so stable it produces all its light and heat energy, all its nuclear reactions stops and it begins to cool. It stops producing its energy and begins to shrink or becomes compressed as it cools. Its density would then begin to increase, its volume would start to decrease but its mass would remain the same. This outcome would mean the end of the galaxy because the gravitational force of the mega body would be too great, the temperature would be too low (extremely low sub zero temperature) and there would be no source of light or any form of energy near the body. It would become one giant or massive dark body. The entire galaxy would be compressed into one giant dark and cold body, which would not be able to sustain life, and this would signify the end of life in the galaxy.
The third and final outcome: this outcome or the first outcome could be the outcomes, which recreates the galaxy or may have been the situations that originally created this galaxy, the big bang.
In the third out come, only one mega star is created, which remain stable as it produces its energy. The star continues to produce light and heat energy, through nuclear fusion. In this type of nuclear reactions or thermo nuclear reactions the mega star combine light elements (gases) to produce heavier elements (metals) within its core. It continues to combine these lighter elements until a point or limit is reached where there are no more light elements to be combined, so it has to find another way to produce energy. With the high temperature and pressure within the mega star, it would start to split atoms, splitting the heavy elements (such as metals) which it had produced back in to light elements (such as gases). The splitting of heavy elements by nuclear reactions to produce energy, within the massive star, would begin to cause a series of large nuclear explosions or a series of massive chain reactions, which would cause the mega star to become highly unstable.
In its unstable state the massive star would then erupted into a mega super supernova in one or several massive and violent explosions. This massive explosion would break the mega star into billions of trillions of molten fragments of different size (that is different mass, volume and density), which would be carrying with them a massive amount of stardust (most of the elements in the periodic table), that is a large amount of dust, gas and metallic particles. Which will be scattered in every direction from the location where the star was.
The massive and violent explosion of the mega star would be the “Big Bang” which would recreate the galaxy. The size and force of the big bang explosion would determine the size and shape of the galaxy that is whether it would be shaped like a large spiral or whether it would be shaped like a large loosely organized cluster or cloud. The big bang explosion would also determine the rate at which the galaxy would expand or the rate at which the fragments move away from the original location of the of the star which had exploded. The location in space where the massive star, which had exploded, was located would become the center of the galaxy.
The energy of all forms produced by the big bang explosion would also be moving with the wave of fast moving fragments and stardust a way from the center of the galaxy in every direction. All of the energy would remain long after the big bang but some would be change to different forms.
The large, medium and small fragments along with the star dust and gases from the explosion of the massive star would be the bodies or materials which would reform the solar systems, suns, planets, moons, meteors, asteroids and comets within the galaxy.
The size and mass and the amount of energy within the solar systems and the bodies within the solar systems would depend on the size and speed of the hot fast moving fragments, the amount of fragments and the strength of the gravitational forces between fragments.
I have several theories on how the solar system would be recreated; these theories are mostly modifications of other theories.
Of the fragments that broke off the mega star the fragments with the largest mass along with the largest volumes of stardust would be the bodies, which would reform stars (suns). The large fragments would have traveling with them, other small and medium size hot fragments and stardust; these would reform planet, moons and other heavenly bodies.
Upon exploding, the hot, large, fast moving fragments would move in every direction away from the original location of the mega star. These large fragments, whose mass would be about the same as a normal sun’s mass, would have smaller fragments along with star dust and other small particle accompanying them or traveling with them. The small hot fragments, whose total mass would amount to about the same as several large rocky and gas planets, would be accompanying the hot, large and loosely formed fragments at high velocity, in a similar manner as how the tail of a comet travels or trail behind or accompany the head of the comet. In other words the head (coma and nucleus) of the comet would represent the large loosely formed stars (large fragments), while the long sparkly tail of the comet would represent the smaller fragments and stardust traveling behind the large loosely formed star.
Upon leaving the exploding mega star, nuclear reactions or chain reactions, that is the splitting of heavy elements to form light element would continue to take place within the large fragments and small fragments. In the large fragments the nuclear reactions would cause small portions of its outer layer to break off and become a part of its trailing tail. The reactions would further break up the small fragments making the tail in to smaller fragments and particles.
These nuclear reactions splitting atoms, would continue to take place within the loosely formed star and within the smaller fragments in its tail, until a limit or point is reached where most of the heavy elements within the star and its tail has been broken down or split up. By this time the loosely formed star and its tail would more start to resemble a large, fast moving cloud made of hot dust, gases and small fragments of heavy elements, with a more organized head and tail. Most of the mass, energy and gravitational force within the fast moving cloud would be located in its head (star), that is about 80% of the mass and energy within the fast moving cloud would be located in its loosely formed star, with a greater volume of star dust, light elements or gases and a much smaller volume of heavy metallic elements. Most of the heavy metallic elements would be located in the small fragments, which weren’t fully broken down by the nuclear reactions. These small would remain in or as a part of the tail of the dust and gas cloud.
Some possible out comes after the formation of this more organized dust, small metallic fragments and gas cloud is:
1. It could begin to slow down on its own due to the gravitational forces acting within it, between the large loosely formed star, the small fragments and the star dust which comprises mostly of gases.
2. It could be obstructed by the large gravitational field of another large dust cloud, which could cause it to start to change its direction and speed.
3. It move so close to the other large mass or dust and gas cloud, that the strong gravitational field of the other dust could cause it to lose some of its mass, that is a small amount of gas particles could break of and become a part of the other dust cloud. The gravitational force of the other cloud could be so strong that it not only cause some of the dust cloud to break off but it also cause the two to collide into each other.
Whatever the out come, upon slowing down the large dust and gas clouds would be the bodies or masses which would reform the solar systems within the galaxy.
Whatever the reason why the hot dust and gas cloud starts to slow down, when it does start to slow down it would start to become more organized due to the gravitational forces acting within it.
The strong gravitational force between the particles within the head of the dust cloud would cause the particles of gases and a few metallic particles to start to attract each other. As the particles within the head starts to attract, they would start to move towards its center, large numbers of collision would start to take place between the particles. This would cause the average kinetic energy or temperature and pressure within the head and its center would start to rise. As this start to take place the center of the head would start to combine atoms by thermo nuclear reaction to produce nuclear, light and heat energy. As the radiation in the center of the head (the soon to be core of a sun) increases, its gravitational pull on the rest of the head and on the tail of the dust cloud would also start-to-start to increase. This is because an increase in radiation would cause an increase in temperature, which would cause an increase in kinetic energy and with an increase in kinetic energy of the gas particles within the center of the head more random movement, vibrations and rotations of the gas particles would start to take place.
The strength of the gravitational field or force of a body depends on the amount of atoms and electrons within the body, the rate at which the atoms within the body move and the rate at which the electrons within the atoms of the body moves.
The increase in the movement of the atoms and the electrons within the center of the head and the increase in its gravitational field, would cause more gas, dust and metallic particles to become attracted to it and start to move towards it. The movement of the particles toward the center of the head would cause an increase in the mass and density of the center of the head that is there would be an increase the gases or light elements available for the thermo nuclear reactions now taking place in the center of the head.
These increases would mark the rebirth of a well-defined star (a newly formed sun), with multiple layers forming around its core.
At the same time that the birth of the star was taking place in the head of the dust cloud, some similar forces and forms of energy were also at work in the tail of the dust and gas cloud, creating or reforming planets moons and other bodies.
The largest of the small fragments made of heavy elements (metals) within the tail because of their gravitational field would start to attract the smaller fragments and the small volumes of gases located close to them within the tail. Some of the largest of the small fragments would have more heavy element small fragment located close to them than others while some would have more small volumes of gases and dust located close to them than others. As the small fragments of heavy elements, dust and gas start to move towards the largest small fragments, they would start to gain momentum; they would then collide with the larger fragments, distributing all their momentum, explosive power and energy to them. As the collisions increase, the momentum and the temperature or heat energy of the now growing fragments would start to increase. As the temperature and mass of the fragments increase they would start to become more defined or organized, taking the shape of well-defined molten spheres, with developing atmospheres. As the collisions continue the now well-defined molten spheres would continue to increase their momentum. And this increase in momentum would set them in motion and because of the gravitational pull of the newly formed sum on the molten spheres; they would be stuck in an orbital path around the sun. This would mark the birth of a planet. If the transfer of momentum during the collisions is the force which set the planets in orbit, then each planet would or should have a different orbital path, that is they won’t be as neatly aligned as in our solar system.
The theory which could tell how they would become neatly aligned, is that during the formation of the solar system another large fast moving cloud made of similar contents, with similar mass and gravitational force passed every close to this dust cloud. Causing four different forces to start to acted on the developing bodies in the tail and in the head of the dust cloud setting them in motion:
1. The pulling force of the head on the bodies in the tail.
2. The force opposing that pulling force of the head.
3. The pulling force of the passing large gas and dust cloud acting on the bodies located in the tail of this dust cloud. This pulling force would act perpendicular to the two previous force and would act at a tangent to the orbital part of the in the tail of this dust cloud.
4. The force opposing pulling force of the other dust cloud.
With the formation of the solar systems’, suns, planets, the moons of the planets would be formed in a similar manner as the planets them self but on a smaller scale.
The hot molten spheres (planets) in orbit around the sun, as the number of collisions decrease the surface of the planets would start to cool but reactions producing heat and kinetic energy would still be taking place within their cores. The spheres would remain hot and molten for a long time; this would give the gravitational fields of the spheres the time and the freedom to pull most of the heavy metallic elements towards their centers. This would then cause the lighter non-metallic elements and the gases to rise and be released on the surfaces of the planets and into their atmospheres. These elements, ions, molecules and compounds released to the surfaces and beyond would start to react with each other, forming thick, rich and dense atmospheres around each planet. As the planets cool their atmospheres would also start to cool. At the same time the reactions within the cores of the planets would cause pressure to start build up; forcing or pushing up heavy metallic elements, this would also cause other gases, molecules and compounds trapped beneath the planets surfaces to be released, causing the atmospheres around the planets to become thicker, and even denser and enriched with new substances.
As the planets cool further, most of the substances within their atmospheres would start to fall back on to the surfaces of the planets, cooling them down even further, causing some of the planets’ surfaces to become hard, forming multiple layers within the planets. As the surface of the planets cool the pressure built up in their cores would cause cracks to start to appear within the upper layers of the planets, which would form geographical continental plates and mountains on the planets. The size of the force and pressure applied to the mountains and plates by the cores of the planets would give each planet its own unique appearance Because the planets would be stuck in orbit around their star or sun, they would develop a long and energy beneficial relationship with the sun, creating series of planetary cycles and season.
With the formation of all these bodies in the galaxy the only thing left is the creating of life.
The pictures above shows that with the explosion of the mega star the entire galaxy would be reconstructed from scratch, using the energy and forces of the big bang. And stars, planets and life would be created in the galaxy again. The whole theory on the destruction and reconstruction of the galaxy is based on the fact that for every action there is an equal and opposite action and on the fact that whenever a reaction takes in the galaxy and in the whole universe no matter, mass or energy is loss or destroyed. That is with the destruction, breaking down or exploding of any star, sun, planet, moon, planetoid, asteroid, comet or meteor anywhere in the universe no matter, mass or energy is loss or destroyed. And after the destruction, breaking down or exploding of these bodies, due to the presents and the availability of the force of gravity the particles of matter or the remnant of the bodies have the ability to reconstruct, reform or recreate the original bodies. These reformations could take millions or billions of years.
Newton’s law (3rd law) to every action there is an equal opposite reaction.
A.Pinnock’s law – a derived from Newton’s 3rd law: To every force of attraction there is an equal force of repulsion. That is, to every attractive force there is an equal repellent force.
All bodies in the universe are attracted to each other; this is because every thing in the universe is made up of atoms. All electrons, protons, atoms and molecules have a magnetic field or attraction and repulsion between them. The more dense a substance or the more spinning electrons a substance has the greater its force of attraction or repulsion.
Base on the information given above I thing that in the near future we should be able to develop new types of magnets or devices which instead of attracting iron they repel iron. And even newer magnets, which can attract and repel other elements, such as other metallic elements or even gas elements.
With a normal magnet, the Domain Theory of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Substances state that substances such as iron and steel have magnetic domains arranged randomly within them, making the iron or steel unmagnetized or has no polarity.
If the unmagnetized piece of iron or steel is placed within or close to a strong enough external magnetic field, the magnetic domains within the steel or iron will be brought in to the best possible alignment with the external magnetic field. The iron or steel will now become attracted to the source of the external magnetic field because of the free atomic pole at the end of the metals.
With the new type of magnet which repels iron, the Repulsion Theory of Magnetism by Antoine Pinnock states that: If an unmagnitized piece of iron or steel is placed within or close to the external magnetic field, the magnetic domains within the iron or steel will be brought in to the best possible alignment with the external magnetic field in such a way that they are directly opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field. The steel or iron will now be repelled from the source of the external magnetic field because the two magnetic fields are in directly opposite directions. It would be like two north poles directly facing each other, and we all know like poles repels.